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International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health

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Study of cytodiagnosis of discharge per vaginum with specific reference to human papilloma virus and herpes simplex virus at tertiary care center, Indore

Khushboo Likhar, Meena Mittal, C V Kulkarni, Monica Verma, Rakesh Mehar, Vipin Todase.

Abstract
Background: Cervical cancers are the second most frequent type of female cancer. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most important risk factor for cervical cancer.

Objective: The aim is to detect cytomorphological changes of HPV and herpes simplex virus (HSV) to early diagnose cervical cancer to prevent it at early stage.

Materials and Methods: The study includes total 1542 patients presenting with the complaints of vaginal discharge and/or associated symptoms. Samples were taken, and prepared smear was stained with papanicolaou (PAP) stain and reporting was done according to The Bethesda system - 2014. The study was prospective study and statically analyzed.

Results: Totally, 1542 PAP smears were analyzed. Out of which, normal smears 364 (23.61%), inadequate smears 58 (3.76%), inflammatory smear 1093 cases (70.88%), and epithelial cell abnormality comprises 27 cases (1.75%). Out of 27 cases, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance was the most common epithelial cell abnormality (63%). Cytomorphological features of HPV infection are seen in 2 cases of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 2 cases of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, and 5 cases of the malignant lesion while inflammatory smear suspicious of HSV comprises 2 cases (0.13%).

Conclusions: The incidence of cervical cancer can be decreased if PAP smear screening is done at an early age and in the females having high-risk factors.

Key words: Papanicolaou Smear; Epithelial Cell Abnormality; Cytodiagnosis; Discharge Per Vaginum


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Likhar K, Mittal M, Kulkarni CV, Verma M, Mehar R, Todase V. Study of cytodiagnosis of discharge per vaginum with specific reference to human papilloma virus and herpes simplex virus at tertiary care center, Indore. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2017.0306524032017



Web Style

Likhar K, Mittal M, Kulkarni CV, Verma M, Mehar R, Todase V. Study of cytodiagnosis of discharge per vaginum with specific reference to human papilloma virus and herpes simplex virus at tertiary care center, Indore. www.scopemed.org/?mno=261328 [Access: June 25, 2017]. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2017.0306524032017



AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Likhar K, Mittal M, Kulkarni CV, Verma M, Mehar R, Todase V. Study of cytodiagnosis of discharge per vaginum with specific reference to human papilloma virus and herpes simplex virus at tertiary care center, Indore. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2017.0306524032017



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Likhar K, Mittal M, Kulkarni CV, Verma M, Mehar R, Todase V. Study of cytodiagnosis of discharge per vaginum with specific reference to human papilloma virus and herpes simplex virus at tertiary care center, Indore. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2017.0306524032017



Harvard Style

Likhar, K., Mittal, M., Kulkarni, C. V., Verma, M., Mehar, R. & Todase, V. (2017) Study of cytodiagnosis of discharge per vaginum with specific reference to human papilloma virus and herpes simplex virus at tertiary care center, Indore. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2017.0306524032017



Turabian Style

Likhar, Khushboo, Meena Mittal, C V Kulkarni, Monica Verma, Rakesh Mehar, and Vipin Todase. 2017. Study of cytodiagnosis of discharge per vaginum with specific reference to human papilloma virus and herpes simplex virus at tertiary care center, Indore. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2017.0306524032017



Chicago Style

Likhar, Khushboo, Meena Mittal, C V Kulkarni, Monica Verma, Rakesh Mehar, and Vipin Todase. "Study of cytodiagnosis of discharge per vaginum with specific reference to human papilloma virus and herpes simplex virus at tertiary care center, Indore." doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2017.0306524032017



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Likhar, Khushboo, Meena Mittal, C V Kulkarni, Monica Verma, Rakesh Mehar, and Vipin Todase. "Study of cytodiagnosis of discharge per vaginum with specific reference to human papilloma virus and herpes simplex virus at tertiary care center, Indore." doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2017.0306524032017



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Likhar, K., Mittal, M., Kulkarni, C. V., Verma, M., Mehar, R. & Todase, V. (2017) Study of cytodiagnosis of discharge per vaginum with specific reference to human papilloma virus and herpes simplex virus at tertiary care center, Indore. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2017.0306524032017



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Retraction notice [Dec 03, 2016]
Retraction notice [Mar 02, 2015]
Submission of article [Jul 22, 2012]


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