E-ISSN 2277-338X | ISSN 2320-4664
 

Original Research 


Effect of active smoking on glucose tolerance and lipid profile

Deepak N Parchwani, Amit A Upadhyah, Dussa Hema Chandan.

Cited by (1)

Abstract
Background: The acute effects of cigarette smoking in smokers include dyslipidemia and impaired insulin action that leads to abnormal glucose metabolism. Both dyslipidemia and insulin resistance are well-established major risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

Aims & Objective: To ascertain the prevalence of several degrees of glucose abnormalities in smokers and to assess the impact of active tobacco smoking on lipids profile in adult male population.

Material and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with one hundred and fifty two active adult male smokers defined by persons smoking cigarettes over 2 pack years and fifty age and Body Mass Index (BMI) matched healthy control. Smokers were classified into mild to moderate (Group I) and severe (Group II) based on the number of pack years as 2 – 10 and more than 10 respectively. Glucose tolerance was assessed according to American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines and standard methods were adopted to check the lipid levels. Data analyses were performed with the SPSS 15.0 statistical software.

Results: An abnormal glucose metabolism was diagnosed in 66% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61.4%-71.6%) of the smokers. The mean HOMA-IR (Homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance) in smokers was 6.8 + 3.1. Decreasing glucose tolerance was associated with insulin resistance i.e. from normal glucose tolerance condition through IGT, IFG to diabetic, the HOMA IR progressively increased (4.9 + 2.1, 6.7 + 4.2, 7.4 + 3.1 and 8.9 + 3.7 respectively). Atherogenic index as indicated by total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio was significantly elevated in both the smoker groups as compared to non-smokers. According to the Adult Treatment Program III criteria, the metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 44.07% (95% CI, 35.9%-47.3%) of the smokers. In fact only 10 participants (6%, 95% CI, 5.4% - 7.1%) showed good control of cardiovascular risk factors.

Conclusion: Abnormalities in lipid profile and glucose tolerance are directly correlated with smoking pack years in this study. Intense education program about adverse health events of smoking should be under taken through all means.

Key words: Smoking, Glucose tolerance, Lipid profile, Cardiovascular risk factors


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
Print this article Print this Article
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Citation Tools
Related Records
 Articles by Deepak N Parchwani
Articles by Amit A Upadhyah
Articles by Dussa Hema Chandan
on Google
on Google Scholar
Article Statistics
 Viewed: 3840
Downloaded: 1058
Cited: 1

REFERENCES
1. World health organization. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2011. URL http://www.who.int/tobacco/global_report/2011/en/


2. Peeters A, Barendregt JJ, Willekens F. Obesity in Adulthood and Its Consequences for Life Expectancy: A Life-Table Analysis. Ann Intern Med 2003;138:2432.

[
Pubmed]   

3. Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, Dans T, Avezum A, Lanas F, McQueen M, Budaj A, Pais P, Varigos J, Lisheng L. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet 2004;364:937952.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17018-9


4. Craig WY, Palomaki GE, Haddow JE. Cigarette smoking and serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations: an analysis of published data. BMJ 1989;298:784788.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.298.6676.784

[
Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   

5. Ambrose JA, Barua RS. The pathophysiology of cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease: an update. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43:17311737.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2003.12.047

[
Pubmed]   

6. Cryer PE, Haymond MW, Santiago JV, Shah SD. Norepinephrine and epinephrine release and adrenergic mediation of smokingassociated hemodynamic and metabolic events. N Engl J Med 1976;295:573-577.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM197609092951101

[
Pubmed]   

7. Lager I, Attvall S, Eriksson BM, von Schenck H, Smith U. Studies on the insulin-antagonistic effect of catecholamines in normal man: evidence for the importance of /32-receptors. Diabetologia 1986;29:409-416.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00506530

[
Pubmed]   

8. Attvall S, Fowelin J, Lager I, von Schenck H, Smith U. Smoking induces insulin resistance: a potential link with the insulinresistance syndrome. J Intern Med 1993;233:327-332.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2796.1993.tb00680.x

[
Pubmed]   

9. Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Executive summary of the third report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001;285(19):2486-2497.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.285.19.2486

[
Pubmed]   

10. World health organization expert consultation: Appropriate body mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet 2004;363:157-163.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)15268-3


11. Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, et al. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA 2003;289:2560-2572.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.289.19.2560

[
Pubmed]   

12. American Diabetes Association: Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care 2010;33:S62-S69.

http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc10-S062

[
Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   

13. Trinder P. Determination of blood glucose using an oxidase-peroxidase system with a non-carcinogenic chromogen. J Clin Pathol 1969;22:158-61.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jcp.22.2.158

[
Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   

14. Allain CC, Poon LS, Chan CS, Richmond W, Fu PC. Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clin Chem 1974;20:470-5.

[
Pubmed]   

15. Fossati P,Prencipe L. Serum triglycerides determined colorimetrically with an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide. Clin Chem 1982;28:2077-80.

[
Pubmed]   

16. Burstein M, Morfin R. Precipitation of alpha lipoproteins in serum by sodium phosphotungstate in the presence of magnesium chloride. Life Sci 1969;8:345-8.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0024-3205(69)90056-3


17. Trivelli LA, Ranney HM, Lai HT. Hemoglobin components in patients with diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1971;284:353-7.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM197102182840703

[
Pubmed]   

18. Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 1972;18:499-502.

[
Pubmed]   

19. Sobey WJ, Beer SF, Carrington CA. Sensitive and specific two site immunoradiometric assays for human insulin, proinsulin, 65-66 split and 32-33 split proinsulins. Biochem J 1989;20:1183-1197.


20. Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, Naylor GA, Treacher DF, Turner RL. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and β-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia 1985;28:41219.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00280883

[
Pubmed]   

21. Gupta V, Tiwari S, Agarwal CG, Shukla P Chandra H, Sharma P. Effect of short term cigarette smoking on insulin resistance and lipid profile in asymptomatic adults. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2006;50(3):285-290.

[
Pubmed]   

22. Benwitz NL. Pharmacological aspects of cigarette smoking and nicotine action. N Engl J Med 1988;319:13181330.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198811173192005

[
Pubmed]   

23. Boden G, Chen X, Ruiz J, White JV, Rossetti L, Mechanism of fatty acid induced inhibition of glucose uptake. J Clin Invest 1994;93:24382446.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI117252

[
Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   

24. Nesto RW. Correlation between cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus: current concepts. Am J Med 2004;116 (Suppl 5A):11S-22S.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2003.10.016

[
Pubmed]   

25. Meigs JB, Nathan DM, Wilson PW, Cupples LA, Singer DE. Metabolic risk factors worsen continuously across the spectrum of nondiabetic glucose tolerance. The Framingham Offspring Study. Ann Intern Med 1998;128:524-533.

[
Pubmed]   

26. Campbell SC, Moffatt RJ, Stamford BA. Smoking and smoking cessation - The relationship between cardiovascular disease and lipoprotein metabolism: A review. Atherosclerosis 2008;201:22535.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2008.04.046

[
Pubmed]   

27. Craig CL, Marshall AL, Sjostrom M, et al. International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003; 35:13811395.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/01.MSS.0000078924.61453.FB

PMid:12900694

This Article Cited By the following articles

Association of total flight hours with lipid blood profiles among civilian pilots in Indonesia
J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 2018; 1073(): 042012.

1
 
How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Parchwani DN, Upadhyah AA, Chandan DH. Effect of active smoking on glucose tolerance and lipid profile. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 20-25. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.20-25


Web Style

Parchwani DN, Upadhyah AA, Chandan DH. Effect of active smoking on glucose tolerance and lipid profile. http://www.ijmsph.com/?mno=26383 [Access: October 22, 2018]. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.20-25


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Parchwani DN, Upadhyah AA, Chandan DH. Effect of active smoking on glucose tolerance and lipid profile. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 20-25. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.20-25



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Parchwani DN, Upadhyah AA, Chandan DH. Effect of active smoking on glucose tolerance and lipid profile. Int J Med Sci Public Health. (2013), [cited October 22, 2018]; 2(1): 20-25. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.20-25



Harvard Style

Parchwani, D. N., Upadhyah, A. A. & Chandan, D. H. (2013) Effect of active smoking on glucose tolerance and lipid profile. Int J Med Sci Public Health, 2 (1), 20-25. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.20-25



Turabian Style

Parchwani, Deepak N, Amit A Upadhyah, and Dussa Hema Chandan. 2013. Effect of active smoking on glucose tolerance and lipid profile. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 2 (1), 20-25. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.20-25



Chicago Style

Parchwani, Deepak N, Amit A Upadhyah, and Dussa Hema Chandan. "Effect of active smoking on glucose tolerance and lipid profile." International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health 2 (2013), 20-25. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.20-25



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Parchwani, Deepak N, Amit A Upadhyah, and Dussa Hema Chandan. "Effect of active smoking on glucose tolerance and lipid profile." International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health 2.1 (2013), 20-25. Print. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.20-25



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Parchwani, D. N., Upadhyah, A. A. & Chandan, D. H. (2013) Effect of active smoking on glucose tolerance and lipid profile. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 2 (1), 20-25. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.20-25





Most Viewed Articles
  • Management of Appendicular Lump: Early exploration Vs conservative management
    Chandra Prakash Pandey, Ram Chandra Kesharwani, Chandra Gopal Singh Chauhan, Manmohan Krishna Pandey, Purnima Mittra, Pramod Kumar, Arshad Raza
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(4): 1046-1049
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.230820131

  • Burden of non communicable diseases in India: Setting priority for action
    Kalpa Sharma
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 7-11
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.7-11

  • Internet addiction among professional courses students: A study from central India
    Arvind Sharma, Rupesh Sahu, Pradeep Kumar Kasar, Richa Sharma
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2014; 3(9): 1069-1073
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2014.180620142

  • Diabetic nephropathy: Progression and pathophysiology
    Deepak N Parchwani, Amit A Upadhyah
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2012; 1(2): 59-70
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2012.1.59-70

  • Elevated levels of serum uric acid, creatinine or urea in preeclamptic women
    Magna Manjareeka, Sitikantha Nanda
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 43-47
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.43-47

  • Maternal and fetal outcome in oligohydramnios- Study of 100 cases
    Krishna Jagatia, Nisha Singh, Sachin Patel
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(3): 724-727
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.070520132

  • Zinc: The trace element of major importance in human nutrition and health
    Jayant D Deshpande, Mohini M Joshi, Purushottam A Giri
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 1-6
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.1-6

  • Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices (KAP) study on HIV / AIDS among HIV patients, care givers and general population in north-eastern part of India.
    L P Meena, S K Pandey, M Rai, Anju Bharti, Shyam Sunder
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 36-42
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.36-42

  • Patient satisfaction about health care services: A cross sectional study of patients who visit the outpatient department of a civil hospital at Surendranagar, Gujarat
    Krupal Joshi, Kishor Sochaliya, Shyamal Purani, Girija Kartha
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(3): 659-663
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.250420131

  • Prevalence and pattern of substance abuse among school childern in nothern India: A rapid assesment study
    Syed Shuja Qadri, RKD Goel, Jagjeet Singh, Surendra Kumar Ahluwalia, Rambha Pathak, Humaira Bashir
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(2): 273-282
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.271-280

  • Most Downloaded
  • Internet addiction among professional courses students: A study from central India
    Arvind Sharma, Rupesh Sahu, Pradeep Kumar Kasar, Richa Sharma
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2014; 3(9): 1069-1073
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2014.180620142

  • Diabetic nephropathy: Progression and pathophysiology
    Deepak N Parchwani, Amit A Upadhyah
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2012; 1(2): 59-70
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2012.1.59-70

  • Burden of non communicable diseases in India: Setting priority for action
    Kalpa Sharma
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 7-11
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.7-11

  • Gunthers with haemolytic anaemia extremly rare: A case report
    Nilesh Kumar, Ankur Varshney, Arvind Anand, Dibyaranjan Behera, Ravi Anand, Ashutosh Tiwari
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(2): 472-474
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.313-315

  • Zinc: The trace element of major importance in human nutrition and health
    Jayant D Deshpande, Mohini M Joshi, Purushottam A Giri
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 1-6
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.1-6

  • Management of Appendicular Lump: Early exploration Vs conservative management
    Chandra Prakash Pandey, Ram Chandra Kesharwani, Chandra Gopal Singh Chauhan, Manmohan Krishna Pandey, Purnima Mittra, Pramod Kumar, Arshad Raza
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(4): 1046-1049
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.230820131

  • Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices (KAP) study on HIV / AIDS among HIV patients, care givers and general population in north-eastern part of India.
    L P Meena, S K Pandey, M Rai, Anju Bharti, Shyam Sunder
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 36-42
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.36-42

  • Patient satisfaction about health care services: A cross sectional study of patients who visit the outpatient department of a civil hospital at Surendranagar, Gujarat
    Krupal Joshi, Kishor Sochaliya, Shyamal Purani, Girija Kartha
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(3): 659-663
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.250420131

  • Study of psychological stress among undergraduate medical students of government medical college, Surat.
    Priti Solanky, Binita Desai, Abhay Kavishwar, S. L. Kantharia
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2012; 1(2): 38-42
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2012.1.38-42

  • Maternal and fetal outcome in oligohydramnios- Study of 100 cases
    Krishna Jagatia, Nisha Singh, Sachin Patel
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(3): 724-727
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.070520132

  • Most Cited Articles
  • Zinc: The trace element of major importance in human nutrition and health
    Jayant D Deshpande, Mohini M Joshi, Purushottam A Giri
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 1-6
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.1-6
    Cited : 23 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Burden of non communicable diseases in India: Setting priority for action
    Kalpa Sharma
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 7-11
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.7-11
    Cited : 13 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Clinico-microbiological profile of women with vaginal discharge in a tertiary care hospital of northern India
    Varsha Chaudhary, Ved Prakesh, Kian Agarwal, Vijender Kumar Agrawal, Arun Singh, Sachin Pandey
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2012; 1(2): 75-80
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2012.1.75-80
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Correlation between obesity and cardio respiratory fitness
    Prabha Setty, BV Padmanabha, BR Doddamani
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(2): 300-304
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.298-302
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Migration and health-care access: Barriers to access government health services by migrant tribal community living in an eastern Indian city
    Suchismita Mishra, Yadlapalli S Kusuma, Bontha V Babu
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2015; 4(1): 101-108
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2015.0110201424
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Non albicans Candida species: its isolation pattern, species distribution, virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility profile
    Sachin Chandrakant Deorukhkar, Santosh Saini
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(3): 533-538
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.080320131
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Initial default among tuberculosis patients diagnosed in selected medical colleges of Puducherry: issues and possible interventions
    Divija Pillai, Anil J Purty, Stalin Prabakaran, Zile Singh, Govindarajan Soundappan, Velavan Anandan
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2015; 4(7): 957-960
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2015.30012015196
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices (KAP) study on HIV / AIDS among HIV patients, care givers and general population in north-eastern part of India.
    L P Meena, S K Pandey, M Rai, Anju Bharti, Shyam Sunder
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 36-42
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.36-42
    Cited : 5 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • The surgical approach in huge scrotal lymphedema
    Hiren Dahyabhai Parmar
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2013; 2(1): 153-155
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.2.153-155
    Cited : 5 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Sugammadex associate persistant bradycardia
    Murat Bilgi, Abdullah Demirhan, Akcan Akkaya, Umit Yasar Tekelioglu, Hasan Kocoglu
    Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2014; 3(3): 372-374
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/ijmsph.2013.251220131
    Cited : 5 times [Click to see citing articles]