E-ISSN 2277-338X | ISSN 2320-4664
 

Original Research 


A study on the effect of smokeless tobacco on oral cancer done in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India

Nirmala C J, Hemanth T, Lalitha K, Shivaraj N S, Murthy N S.

Abstract
Background: Oral cancer is a major problem in India. The incidence is 10.1 cases per lac for males and 4.3 per lac in females. The risk factors for the development of oral cancers include smokeless tobacco.

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to find the association between smokeless tobacco and oral cancer.

Materials and Methods: A case–control study done at a tertiary care hospital, Bengaluru, India. Study subjects included new cases of oral cancer attending the hospital during the study period and equal number controls. Data collection was done by interview method.

Results: Tobacco chewing with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.3 was significantly associated with the risk of oral cancer. Paan chewing with tobacco showed greater risk than paan chewing without tobacco. Chewers who started the habit before the age of 25 years showed an higher risk with OR of 4.5. An increasing trend in oral cancer risk with increase in the frequency and duration of paan chewing was found. The risk was 30 times higher for those with quid retention as compared to never chewers. Duration of quid retention for ≤5 h showed 29.6 times higher risk and for more than 5 h showed 33.3 times higher risk, as compared to those without quid retention.

Conclusion: Smokeless tobacco shows higher risk for oral cancer. There is a great need to augment tobacco control measures and educate the public about harmful effects of smokeless tobacco.

Key words: Smokeless Tobacco; Case-control Study; Oral Cancer


 
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Pubmed Style

J NC, T H, K L, S SN, S MN. A study on the effect of smokeless tobacco on oral cancer done in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2018; 7(2): 143-146. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.1233729122017


Web Style

J NC, T H, K L, S SN, S MN. A study on the effect of smokeless tobacco on oral cancer done in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India. http://www.ijmsph.com/?mno=285974 [Access: April 21, 2018]. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.1233729122017


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

J NC, T H, K L, S SN, S MN. A study on the effect of smokeless tobacco on oral cancer done in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2018; 7(2): 143-146. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.1233729122017



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

J NC, T H, K L, S SN, S MN. A study on the effect of smokeless tobacco on oral cancer done in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India. Int J Med Sci Public Health. (2018), [cited April 21, 2018]; 7(2): 143-146. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.1233729122017



Harvard Style

J, N. C., T, H., K, L., S, S. N. & S, M. N. (2018) A study on the effect of smokeless tobacco on oral cancer done in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India. Int J Med Sci Public Health, 7 (2), 143-146. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.1233729122017



Turabian Style

J, Nirmala C, Hemanth T, Lalitha K, Shivaraj N S, and Murthy N S. 2018. A study on the effect of smokeless tobacco on oral cancer done in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 7 (2), 143-146. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.1233729122017



Chicago Style

J, Nirmala C, Hemanth T, Lalitha K, Shivaraj N S, and Murthy N S. "A study on the effect of smokeless tobacco on oral cancer done in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India." International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health 7 (2018), 143-146. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.1233729122017



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

J, Nirmala C, Hemanth T, Lalitha K, Shivaraj N S, and Murthy N S. "A study on the effect of smokeless tobacco on oral cancer done in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India." International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health 7.2 (2018), 143-146. Print. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.1233729122017



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

J, N. C., T, H., K, L., S, S. N. & S, M. N. (2018) A study on the effect of smokeless tobacco on oral cancer done in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 7 (2), 143-146. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.1233729122017





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