E-ISSN 2277-338X | ISSN 2320-4664
 

Original Research 


Association of depression, stress, and anxiety with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A case–control study

Niniya Jayaprasad, Prakash R Bhatkule, Uday W Narlawar.

Abstract
Background: The burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing due to aging, rising living standards, and changing lifestyles. Along with this, the presence of some psychological factors such as depression, anxiety, and stress have also been hypothesized as potential risk factors for T2DM.

Objectives: The objective is to study the association of depression, anxiety, and stress with T2DM.

Materials and Methods: This case–control study was conducted in diabetes outpatient department and urban field practice area of GMC Nagpur with 100 cases and 100 age- and gender-matched controls, respectively. Apart from assessing sociodemographic details and anthropometric measurement, the presence and severity of depression, anxiety, and stress were assessed using Hindi translated and validated version of Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale-21. Chi-square for linear trend followed by crude and age-gender adjusted odds ratio (OR) was calculated for each factor under the study.

Results: A positive linear association was seen with increasing levels of each depression, anxiety, stress, and T2DM. A strong association was seen between the presence of depression, anxiety, stress, and T2DM, AOR = 4.02 (2.48–8.05), 5.77 (3.03–10.98), and 6.71 (3.56–12.63), respectively.

Conclusion: Depression, stress, and anxiety were seen to be strongly associated with T2DM.

Key words: Depression; Stress; Anxiety; Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Jayaprasad N, Bhatkule PR, Narlawar UW. Association of depression, stress, and anxiety with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A case–control study. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2018; 7(4): 282-286. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.0103127012018


Web Style

Jayaprasad N, Bhatkule PR, Narlawar UW. Association of depression, stress, and anxiety with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A case–control study. http://www.ijmsph.com/?mno=289075 [Access: April 21, 2018]. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.0103127012018


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Jayaprasad N, Bhatkule PR, Narlawar UW. Association of depression, stress, and anxiety with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A case–control study. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2018; 7(4): 282-286. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.0103127012018



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Jayaprasad N, Bhatkule PR, Narlawar UW. Association of depression, stress, and anxiety with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A case–control study. Int J Med Sci Public Health. (2018), [cited April 21, 2018]; 7(4): 282-286. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.0103127012018



Harvard Style

Jayaprasad, N., Bhatkule, P. R. & Narlawar, U. W. (2018) Association of depression, stress, and anxiety with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A case–control study. Int J Med Sci Public Health, 7 (4), 282-286. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.0103127012018



Turabian Style

Jayaprasad, Niniya, Prakash R Bhatkule, and Uday W Narlawar. 2018. Association of depression, stress, and anxiety with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A case–control study. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 7 (4), 282-286. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.0103127012018



Chicago Style

Jayaprasad, Niniya, Prakash R Bhatkule, and Uday W Narlawar. "Association of depression, stress, and anxiety with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A case–control study." International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health 7 (2018), 282-286. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.0103127012018



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Jayaprasad, Niniya, Prakash R Bhatkule, and Uday W Narlawar. "Association of depression, stress, and anxiety with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A case–control study." International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health 7.4 (2018), 282-286. Print. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.0103127012018



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Jayaprasad, N., Bhatkule, P. R. & Narlawar, U. W. (2018) Association of depression, stress, and anxiety with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A case–control study. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 7 (4), 282-286. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.0103127012018





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