E-ISSN 2277-338X | ISSN 2320-4664
 

Original Research 


Spectrum of microbiota in diabetic foot infections in a teaching hospital of Uttar Pradesh

Sweta Singh, Gopa Banerjee, Jyotsna Agarwal, Vijay Kumar, Kauser Usman.

Abstract
Background: Diabetic foot ulcer is the leading cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputations. A prospective case–control study was carried out on 50 patients with diabetic foot ulcers (cases) and 50 with non-diabetic foot ulcers (controls) to determine the microbiological profile, their antibiotic sensitivity patterns along with different demographic parameters. The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) producers, carbapenemase producers, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among the isolates and the potential risk factors for infection of ulcers with these multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) was also studied along with the outcome of these infections.

Objectives: The present study aims at identifying the microbiological spectrum in these diabetic foot infections and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern in a developing country, like India.

Materials and Methods: Clinical specimens were taken from each patient with diabetic and non-diabetic foot ulcers. These specimens were processed for culture (aerobic and anaerobic), further identification and antibiotic sensitivity testing. ESBL and carbapenemase production was detected by phenotypic methods and automated VITEK-2 system, and the results were mutually compared by the two methods.

Results: A total of 158 organisms (155 bacteria and 3 fungi) were isolated giving an average of two organisms/patient. Cases were mostly positive for polymicrobial growth (77%) as compared to controls, and tissue was the most yielding sample. Gram-negative aerobes were predominantly isolated, followed by Gram-positive aerobes. Anaerobic Gram-negative (3%) and fungal (3%) isolates were also seen in the case samples.

Conclusion: Escherichia coli among the Gram-negative (33%) and S. aureus among the Gram-positive (7%) were the predominantly isolated organisms, while Candida was the most predominantly isolated fungus. A strong association of peripheral vascular disease (PVD), smoking (P = 0.001), as well as neuropathy (P < 0.001) was seen in the case samples ESBL (44%) and carbapenemase (37%) producers were significantly more in cases as compared to controls. CTX-M like was the most common ESBL phenotype of the isolates. One isolate (3.2%) was detected as resistant due to AmpC enzyme by the VITEK-2 system and four were also positive for metallo-B-Lactamase production. MDRO infection was associated with the presence of neuropathy, PVD, ulcer size >5 cm2, and osteomyelitis (P<0.01).

Key words: Carbapenemase Production; CTX-M Phenotype; Diabetic Foot Ulcer; Phenotypic Methods, VITEK-2


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Sweta Singh, Gopa Banerjee, Jyotsna Agarwal, Vijay Kumar, Kauser Usman. Spectrum of microbiota in diabetic foot infections in a teaching hospital of Uttar Pradesh. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2018; 7(9): 741-747. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.0617809062018


Web Style

Sweta Singh, Gopa Banerjee, Jyotsna Agarwal, Vijay Kumar, Kauser Usman. Spectrum of microbiota in diabetic foot infections in a teaching hospital of Uttar Pradesh. http://www.ijmsph.com/?mno=301487 [Access: November 12, 2018]. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.0617809062018


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Sweta Singh, Gopa Banerjee, Jyotsna Agarwal, Vijay Kumar, Kauser Usman. Spectrum of microbiota in diabetic foot infections in a teaching hospital of Uttar Pradesh. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2018; 7(9): 741-747. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.0617809062018



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Sweta Singh, Gopa Banerjee, Jyotsna Agarwal, Vijay Kumar, Kauser Usman. Spectrum of microbiota in diabetic foot infections in a teaching hospital of Uttar Pradesh. Int J Med Sci Public Health. (2018), [cited November 12, 2018]; 7(9): 741-747. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.0617809062018



Harvard Style

Sweta Singh, Gopa Banerjee, Jyotsna Agarwal, Vijay Kumar, Kauser Usman (2018) Spectrum of microbiota in diabetic foot infections in a teaching hospital of Uttar Pradesh. Int J Med Sci Public Health, 7 (9), 741-747. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.0617809062018



Turabian Style

Sweta Singh, Gopa Banerjee, Jyotsna Agarwal, Vijay Kumar, Kauser Usman. 2018. Spectrum of microbiota in diabetic foot infections in a teaching hospital of Uttar Pradesh. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 7 (9), 741-747. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.0617809062018



Chicago Style

Sweta Singh, Gopa Banerjee, Jyotsna Agarwal, Vijay Kumar, Kauser Usman. "Spectrum of microbiota in diabetic foot infections in a teaching hospital of Uttar Pradesh." International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health 7 (2018), 741-747. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.0617809062018



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Sweta Singh, Gopa Banerjee, Jyotsna Agarwal, Vijay Kumar, Kauser Usman. "Spectrum of microbiota in diabetic foot infections in a teaching hospital of Uttar Pradesh." International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health 7.9 (2018), 741-747. Print. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.0617809062018



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Sweta Singh, Gopa Banerjee, Jyotsna Agarwal, Vijay Kumar, Kauser Usman (2018) Spectrum of microbiota in diabetic foot infections in a teaching hospital of Uttar Pradesh. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 7 (9), 741-747. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2018.0617809062018





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