E-ISSN 2277-338X | ISSN 2320-4664
 

Review Article 


Antimicrobial resistance: Causes and impact on public health in developed and developing countries

Paushali Pal, Aditi Chaudhuri, Krishnangshu Ray, Sudip Kumar Banerjee.

Abstract
Antibiotic-resistance (AR) has become an alarming issue, posing threats to public health in terms of mortality and economic loss. The drivers of AR include environmental contamination from varied sources, ultimately making its way into our drinking water and food. Other factors include reckless use of antibiotics by the uneducated health workers, unhygienic situation of the hospitals, overconsumption and careless discharge of medicines by the general populace, injudicious use of antibiotics in the livestock, and indiscriminate disposal of untreated pharmaceutical wastes into the municipal water have caused several health hazards, such as “AR in infants,” respiratory disorders, and cancer. Furthermore, the sewage treatment process itself augments the antimicrobial resistance crisis. Hence, it is an alarming issue which must be taken care at the global level as well as the national level.

Key words: Antimicrobial Resistance; Antibiotic-resistance; Drivers; Alarming Issue; Hospitals; General Populace; Pharmaceutical Wastes; Infants; Global; National; Health Hazards


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Pal P, Chaudhuri A, Ray K, Banerjee SK. Antimicrobial resistance: Causes and impact on public health in developed and developing countries. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2020; 9(2): 110-116. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2020.1234026122019


Web Style

Pal P, Chaudhuri A, Ray K, Banerjee SK. Antimicrobial resistance: Causes and impact on public health in developed and developing countries. http://www.ijmsph.com/?mno=76491 [Access: February 15, 2020]. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2020.1234026122019


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Pal P, Chaudhuri A, Ray K, Banerjee SK. Antimicrobial resistance: Causes and impact on public health in developed and developing countries. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2020; 9(2): 110-116. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2020.1234026122019



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Pal P, Chaudhuri A, Ray K, Banerjee SK. Antimicrobial resistance: Causes and impact on public health in developed and developing countries. Int J Med Sci Public Health. (2020), [cited February 15, 2020]; 9(2): 110-116. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2020.1234026122019



Harvard Style

Pal, P., Chaudhuri, . A., Ray, . K. & Banerjee, . S. K. (2020) Antimicrobial resistance: Causes and impact on public health in developed and developing countries. Int J Med Sci Public Health, 9 (2), 110-116. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2020.1234026122019



Turabian Style

Pal, Paushali, Aditi Chaudhuri, Krishnangshu Ray, and Sudip Kumar Banerjee. 2020. Antimicrobial resistance: Causes and impact on public health in developed and developing countries. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 9 (2), 110-116. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2020.1234026122019



Chicago Style

Pal, Paushali, Aditi Chaudhuri, Krishnangshu Ray, and Sudip Kumar Banerjee. "Antimicrobial resistance: Causes and impact on public health in developed and developing countries." International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health 9 (2020), 110-116. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2020.1234026122019



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Pal, Paushali, Aditi Chaudhuri, Krishnangshu Ray, and Sudip Kumar Banerjee. "Antimicrobial resistance: Causes and impact on public health in developed and developing countries." International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health 9.2 (2020), 110-116. Print. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2020.1234026122019



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Pal, P., Chaudhuri, . A., Ray, . K. & Banerjee, . S. K. (2020) Antimicrobial resistance: Causes and impact on public health in developed and developing countries. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 9 (2), 110-116. doi:10.5455/ijmsph.2020.1234026122019





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